Mitral Valve Prolapse

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Summary 1) Fundamentals of Pathology by Hussain Sattar

Mitral Valve Prolapse is the ballooning of the mitral valve into the left atrium during systole.

Pathophysiology 2) Wikipedia

Diagram of the defect in mitral valve prolapse (The University of Chicago Medicine)

Patients with classic mitral valve prolapse have excess connective tissue that thickens the spongiosa and separates collagen bundles in the fibrosa. This is due to an excess of dermatan sulfate, a glycosaminoglycan. This weakens the leaflets and adjacent tissue, resulting in increased leaflet area and elongation of the chordae tendineae. Elongation of the chordae tendineae often causes rupture, commonly to the chordae attached to the posterior leaflet. Advanced lesionsalso commonly involving the posterior leafletlead to leaflet folding, inversion, and displacement toward the left atrium.

Causes 3)First Aid for the Basic Sciences: Organ Systems by Tao Le4)Fundamentals of Pathology by Hussain Sattar

  • Myxoid degeneration of the valve
  • Can be autosomal dominant or acquired as part of a connective tissue disorder

Symptoms 5)Fundamentals of Pathology by Hussain Sattar6)Rapid Review Pathology by Edward Goljan

  • Mid to late systolic click followed by regurgitation murmur
  • Palpitation
  • Chest pain

Cardiac Auscultation – Late systolic click/murmur (MVP Resource)

Diagnosis 7) First Aid for the Basic Sciences: Organ Systems by Tao Le

  • Doppler Echocardiography  systolic displacement of the mitral leaflets

Treatment 8)Fundamentals of Pathology by Hussain Sattar9)Rapid Review Pathology by Edward Goljan

  • Β-blockers
  • Valve Replacement

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