Mallory-weiss syndrome


Summary 1) Robbins Basic Pathology by Vinay Kumar

Mallory-Weiss syndrome are bleeding which are often associated with severe retching or vomiting, as may occur with acute alcohol intoxication.

Pathophysiology 2) BMJ Publishing Group Limited

Mallory-Weiss Tear in the Duodenum

The pathogenesis of MWT is not completely understood. However, most cases seem to occur as a result of a sudden rise in abdominal pressure or transmural pressure gradient across the gastro-oesophageal junction. When these forces are high enough to cause distention in this poorly distended area, an acute gastro-oesophageal tear or laceration may occur.

Causes 3) Wikipedia

  • Alcoholism
  • Eating disorders 
  • Hiatal hernia

Symptoms 4)

  • Abdominal pain 
  • Bloody stool 
  • Involuntary retching 
  • Severe vomiting 
  • Vomiting blood (a condition called “hematemesis”)

Mallory-Weiss tear

Diagnosis 5) Robbins Basic Pathology by Vinay Kumar

  • Endoscopy – roughly linear lacerations of Mallory-Weiss syndrome are longitudinally oriented, range in length from millimeters to several centimeters, and usually cross the gastroesophageal junction.

Treatment 6) Wikipedia

  • Cauterization or injection of epinephrine – to stop the bleeding may be undertaken during the index endoscopy procedure
  • Embolization of the arteries supplying the region – may be required to stop the bleeding 
  • High gastrostomy – can be used to ligate the bleeding vessel

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