Summary 1) Fundamentals of Pathology by Hussain Sattar
Endocarditis is the inflammation of the endocardium that lines the surface of cardiac valves.
Pathophysiology 2) Wikipedia
Since the valves of the heart do not receive any dedicated blood supply, defensive immune mechanisms (such as white blood cells) cannot directly reach the valves via the bloodstream. If an organism (such as bacteria) attaches to a valve surface and forms a vegetation, the host immune response is blunted. The lack of blood supply to the valves also has implications on treatment, since drugs also have difficulty reaching the infected valve. Normally, blood flows smoothly past these valves. If they have been damaged (from rheumatic fever, for example) the risk of bacteria attachment is increased.
- Commonly bacterial – Streptococcus viridans, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermis, Streptococcus bovis
Symptoms 4) Fundamentals of Pathology by Hussain Sattar
- Janeway lesions – erythematous nontender lesions on palms and soles
- Osier nodes – tender lesions on fingers or toes
- Splinter hemorrhages
- Anemia of Chronic Disease
- Blood Cultures – positive with causative agent
- CBC – mild anemia, neutrophilic leukocytosis and monocytosis
- Transesophageal echocardiogram – detects lesions on valves
Treatment 7) Rapid Review Pathology by Edward Goljan
- Initial Treatment is directed at the most likely organism.
- Antibiotic after identification of the pathogen.
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