Croup

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Summary 1) First Aid: USMLE Step 1 by Tao Le

Croup is the inflammation of the larynx, trachea, and bronchi (laryngo-tracheo-bronchitis), most commonly found in kids.

Pathophysiology 2) Wikipedia

The viral infection that causes croup leads to swelling of the larynx, trachea, and large bronchi due to infiltration of white blood cells (especially histiocytes, lymphocytes, plasma cells, and neutrophils). Swelling produces airway obstruction which, when significant, leads to dramatically increased work of breathing and the characteristic turbulent, noisy airflow known as stridor.

Causes 3) Fundamentals of Pathology by Hussain Sattar

  • Parainfluenza virus

Symptoms 4) First Aid: USMLE Step 1 by Tao Le

  • Lung involvement – hoarse, “barking” cough, difficulty breathing and inspiratory stridor 
  • Nonspecific systemic  fever, common cold symptoms

Steeple sign seen in croup (Epomedicine)

Diagnosis 5) Rapid Review Pathology by Edward Goljan

  • Anterior X-ray of the neck – may show a characteristic narrowing of the trachea (steeple sign)

Treatment 6) Rapid Review Pathology by Edward Goljan

  • Corticosteroids – dexamethasone and budesonide
  • Aerosolized racemic epinephrine  dilates airways

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