Angina Pectoris is an episodic chest pain caused by a disparity between cardiac perfusion and cardiac demand leading to transient hypoxia of the myocardium.
Pathophysiology 2) Wikipedia
Angina results when there is an imbalance between the heart’s oxygen demand and supply. This imbalance can result from an increase in demand (e.g., during exercise) without a proportional increase in supply (e.g., due to obstruction or atherosclerosis of the coronary arteries). However, the pathophysiology of angina in females varies significantly as compared to males. Non-obstructive coronary disease is more common in females.
- Inadequate cardiac perfusion
- Retrosternal chest pain or pressure that can radiate to the neck, jaw or left arm and lasts from 15 seconds to 15 minutes
- ECG – prior MI or ischemia
- Stress Test – inducible ischemia
- Cardiac Catheterization – coronary obstruction
Treatment 6)First Aid for the Basic Sciences: Organ Systems by Tao Le7)Rapid Review Pathology by Edward Goljan
- Modification of risk factors – losing weight, cessation of smoking, low cholesterol diet and exercise
- Medications – Nitrates, β-blockers and Calcium Channel Blockers
- Surgery – Coronary Artery Bypass Graft and Percutaneous Transluminal Coronary Angioplasty
Resources/Full Articles at: [ + ]